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**Step 1 References**

Alberta Education. *Patterns and Pre-Algebra, Grades 4–6* (unpublished workshop handout).Edmonton, AB: Alberta Education, 2007.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. *Principles and Standards for School Mathematics*. Reston, VA: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000.

Van de Walle, John A. and LouAnn H. Lovin. *Teaching Student-Centered Mathematics: Grades 3–5*. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006.

**Step 2 References**

Alberta Education. *The Alberta K–9 Mathematics Program of Studies with Achievement Indicators*. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Education, 2007.

**Step 3 References**

Alberta Education. *Patterns and Pre-Algebra, Grades 4–6* (unpublished workshop handout). Edmonton, AB: Alberta Education, 2007.

Fuson, Karen. "Meaning of Numerical Operations through Word Problem Solving: Access to All through Student Situational Drawings within an Algebraic Approach." Presentation at the Annual Conference for the National Council of Supervisors of Mathematics, St. Louis, USA, April 26, 2006.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. "Pan Balance—Numbers." *NCTM Illuminations*. 2000–2007.

http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetail.aspx?ID=26 (Accessed October 2, 2007).

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. "Pan Balance—Shapes." *NCTM Illuminations*. 2000–2007. http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetail.aspx?ID=33 (Accessed October 2, 2007).

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. *Principles and Standards for School Mathematics*. Reston, VA: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000.

**Step 4 References**

No references.

**Step 5 References**

Cathcart, W. George, Yvonne M. Pothier and James H. Vance. *Learning Mathematics in Elementary and Middle Schools*. 2nd ed. Scarborough, ON: Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., 1997.

Proulx, Jérôme. "Making the Transition to Algebraic Thinking: Taking Students' Arithmetic Modes of Reasoning into Account." *delta–K* 44, 1 (2006), pp. 8–16.

**Other References**

Alberta Education. *Diagnostic Mathematics Program, Elementary: Geometry, Division II*. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Education, 1990.

Van de Walle, John A. *Elementary and Middle School Mathematics: Teaching Developmentally*. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 2001.

Wiggins, Grant and Jay McTighe. *Understanding by Design*. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1998.